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END OF LIFE CARE

Overview

During the course of medical history there are many medical decisions based on ethical realizations by guardians, parents, spouses and care providers.  Without specific written documentation on how a person views and wants to transition in terms of end of life care there are many difficult decisions that rarely please everyone involved.  In the case of a soon-to-be father who is currently married, a horrific motorcycle accident placed the spouse, family and medical team in a precarious position.  Although the discussion of end of life care occurred between the father and his spouse it was not documented or verbally communicated outside of that relationship.  There is not a living will present that would dictate and document the expressed consent and morale, religious and personal stance on the decisions regarding end of life care.

The patient had discussed thoroughly the objectives and described their end of life beliefs which were in correlation to their morale and religious views.  The parents were unaware of their son’s perspective on end of life choices, which due to the circumstances involving their own son, varied greatly in the steps and precautions they would make in the same circumstance.  The medical team, while understanding the quality of life is negatively implicated, remains with a stance that life support efforts should be maintained currently and views that recovery is possible with potential brain functionality damage.  The current spouse of the man does not want to continue artificial life support and is, in her views, supporting the wishes and instructions for end of life of her husband.

 

 

Range of Actions

The actions that can be taken with the patient range from extending the life of the patient through artificial means such as through a life support system, allowing the patient to try and resume self-sustaining life functions on his own, a combination of artificial and natural methods of recovery or inducing the end of life medically.  End of life care includes but not limited to many facets and services provided by medical facilities. These actions range from antibiotic treatments to prevent future infections and their complications to the recovery process to the mechanical respirators needed to keep the oxygen flow throughout the patient’s body to sustain the core function of life.

Ethical decisions can be made in regard to withholding or withdrawing medical treatment based on the principle of proportionality and if possible the patient’s wishes on end of life decisions.  The principle of proportionality encompasses the level of effort afforded to the patient in relationship to the benefits received from the efforts performed.  An example of this principle is the artificial nutrition and hydration efforts and the implicated burdens associated with this action compared to the amount of impact on the dying patient’s benefit for the extension of their life.  The artificial nutrition and hydration could be withdrawn in full respect to ethical behaviour devoid of the implications of death that may arise (Abbot-Penny, A., Bartles, D., Paul, B., Rawles, L., and Ward, A. 2005).

Throughout the ethical dilemma none of the parties involved were pursuing the choice for medically ending the life of the patient because the survival opportunity was possible and the question was on what path the stakeholders would travel to get to the future life of the patient or experience their loss sooner than hoped.

 

Potential Resolution

The key participants in the decision are the medical team, which possess the knowledge and experience, the patient, which the impact is direct but voice cannot be heard, the wife, which the conversation about end of life was discussed between patient and herself and the parents which are involved by the heredity of being the parents and as the closest kin.  The importance of this young man in each of the stakeholders’ life is without a doubt implicit and corollary to the motivation and passion behind each of their viewpoints.  The patient did not provide the documentation regarding a do-not-resuscitate order so efforts could be made to sustain life after the ventilator is removed but it would only sustain life to a decision point to stop cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is no longer feasible.

The patient expressed his wishes with his wife and since she is the current spouse of the patient in whom a decision needs to be made to either continue life support or to discontinue the efforts in hopes for a recovery based on self-sustaining activities, the decision is up to her.  The basis for this is established in a hierarchy of spouse, oldest children, and then parents of the patient (Alzheimer’s Association 2011).  The spouse can then make the decision to remove the life support in which the parents currently do not have a voice in the final decision.

Ethically prolonging the efforts to support life could be ended if the support efforts outweighed the potential benefits for life sustainment.  The patient is not brain stem dead but the only life in the body is artificially created through life support systems.  The wife understands the wishes of her spouse and can act ethically according to her husband’s verbal wishes.

 

References

Abbot-Penny, A., Bartles, D., Paul, B., Rawles, L., and Ward, A. (2005). End of life: an ethical overview. University of Minnesota’s Center for Bioethics Retrieved from http://www.ahc.umn.edu/img/assets/26104/End_of_Life.pdf

Alzheimer’s Association (2011). End of life decisions. Retrieved from http://www.alz.org/national/documents/brochure_endoflifedecisions.pdf

Difference Between Sexes in Writing

According to De Beauvoir, writing is considered as an action of a male. For women, it is a way of self-expression and analysis. Therefore, according to the author, the approaches of men and women towards writing, self-expression and confession are completely different. This might be a result of the difference in socialization patterns between men and women, or in personality traits. Feminist approaches towards literature conflict each other, however, the below essay will be based on the writing of De Beauvoir, investigating the author’s opinion on sex-based differences in writing.

From the psychoanalytic point of view, (De Beauvoir, 1949, p. 69) the way of seeing the world appears in literature. And because of the personality trait and socialization differences of males and females, there is a difference in the description. A woman is considered a woman to an extent they feel their femininity,  and this can differ based on personality traits, socialization, family background, social status and beliefs.  Bennett (1989, p. 254) describes the relationship of feminism and history as a complicated one: featuring women in history, as well as writing has long been marginalized. Women and heroes where not to be mentioned on the same page.

            The Definition of a Woman

According to  De Beauvoir, the old thesis that sets women apart because they “have a womb” (De Beauvoir, p. 13) is denied by many women around the world. While feminist approaches are on the rise, values of being a woman are on the decline. Womanhood cannot be defined simply by one’s sex. Femininity is more and less than being a woman. It is an essence of a human being that is present in their personality, beliefs, socialization and attitude. According to the author, (De Beauvoir, 1949, p. 14), “conceptualism has lost ground”. Characterization is something that is simply putting human beings into small boxes they do not fit into. Quoting Quoting Dorothy Parker,  (De Beauvoir, 1949, p. 13) she states that femininity does not exist any more in the concept of previous categories. Indeed, the author attacks humanist approaches that appeared after the enlightenment. (Moi, 2001, p. 141.)  She states that women and men should all be regarded as human beings first, before differentiating between sexes. The definition of a woman, as simply “not a man” is not adequate.  (De Beauvoir, 1949, p. 14) Therefore, indeed, in masculine society has its limits. The book of De Beauvoir admits that there are limits to feminist approaches towards equality and difference of women as well.

The difference between attitudes is often described by the terms: masculine and feminine. According to De Beauvoir, (1949, p. 15), there is no balance between the two expressions, while they are used in symmetry in legal papers. Still, one should not forget about the question of subjectivity. While people assume that masculine and feminine characteristics are like positive and negative poles, the question is more complicated. Women, indeed, are considered as a “minority”, even though they make up half of the population.

Feminism and Writing

The female perspective of writing has been examined by several authors in recent years. There are “feminist writing workshops” supporting  various gender theories. Lange (2008, p. 3) concludes that women approach writing about other women in a different way than men. Men do rarely write novels based on solely women’s viewpoint. This might be the result of women’s higher level of empathy in general. The author (Lange, 2008, p. 5.) states that this might be also because men would have difficulty with taking on a female perspective. Another possibility is that men would consider women to be experts in emotional and life experiences of females, therefore, they would think they are unable to accomplish the task as well as an author who is a woman. Still, gender ideologies in both male and female writing are present in current and 20th Century literature.

Feminist writing, according to De Beauvoir, (1949, p. 16) is a way to fight for rights. Just like proletariat, feminist authors are looking for ways to address the question of equality in rights and opportunities. Emotional struggles are also often displayed by the authors, just like in The Raisin in the Sun. The language of men and women are different in many forms: this is also visible in writing. Women focus on details, moods, emotions, while men are founding their books on actions, cause- effect relationships and logical approaches. A feminist woman who is also a writer would certainly depict the struggle of a female with conventional roles in their lives, the limitations set by the society and the stereotyping patterns.

 

Women’s Approach towards Writing

Women cannot fight for their rights in an organized way, according to De Beauvoir, (1949, p. 17). They, unlike Negroes or proletariat do not have a history, religion or solidarity as a group, therefore, the individual approaches, like writing work the best. Women were too long considered as “the other type” and have not had a chance to express their real self. Men created unions, organizations, took part in politics, but women have no past in these activities. The authors of the current review, based on the writings of De Beauvoir, (1949) consider every piece of writing that comes from a woman’s hand is a type of “reinventing women’s identity”. Still, the new approach of Simone De Beauvoir states that women of the 20th Century should demolish the stereotypes of female characters and replace them with real women, readers can relate to. If we look back at Aristotle’s definition of a woman, stating that a woman is just a woman, without male qualities, it is easy to understand what the author means. The fight is to break down the rule of male-centered writing in literature and add value to readers by balancing out the roles. Strong women appear and the weak, emotional characters start to become more distinguished, complicated and complex. Women’s writing is about “recording their lives” while men describe events and connections between them. Males usually have superiority and they make decisions not only for women in writing, but themselves as well. This is what (De Beauvoir, 1949, p. 25) describes a males’ independence in contrast with females’ dependence.

Men’s Approach Towards Writing

Men’s writing often depicting women’s inferiority. (De Beauvoir, 1949, p. 23.) In some cases, men grant them “equality in difference”, but this is only true for modern literature. This is something De Beauvoir calls “equality in difference”, which she still considers discrimination. Men, indeed are having the “upper hand”, just like the bourgeoisie over proletariat. Men feel like “demigod” compared to women, (De Beauvoir, 1949, p. 24) and women can never be equal. They are often depicted as “strong women” not based on their values, but their feminine power that helps them manipulate men. Therefore, even if women get the “upper hand” in novels and male writing, they do so because of their negative qualities, not because of their virtues. The status of women is determined by men, most of the time. They are described as wives, mothers, sisters in classic literature, as well as later novels, while men are heroes of many virtues. While some male authors assume the equality of women, they never acknowledge their independence of categories, social status and males, most importantly.

Conclusion

Feminist literary criticism is not simply a post structuralist ideology. (Moi, 2009, p. 189). It is indeed the rediscovery of the power of writing. Simone De Beauvoir understands that writing and speaking are actions that exist in the context of our world and society. Her definition of literature can be concluded as “unveiling the world”. She also states that literature can be a way of unfolding reality, which is not fixed, and is determined by perception. This would also lead the authors to the conclusion that while female writers describe “perception” and the process of feeling, understanding, men feature description of the world, as it is. Not changeable, fixed and solid. This, according to Moi (2009, p. 195) is the essence of feminist literary criticism. Moi (2009, p. 193) concludes that literature is the only way that makes readers “change universes”, therefore, it is the only way to change perceptions of male and female roles, categories and stereotypes. According to the author, women’s voices, just like the voices of other minorities: Blacks, Indians, the oppressed should be heard by the society, and the best way to make these views visible for others is to write. (Moi, 2009, p. 195)

 

 

 

 

References

 

Beauvoir, De Simone (1989) {1949} The Second Sex. Translated by H. M. Parshley. New York:      Vintage Books.

Bennett, J. (1989) Feminism and history. Gender & History. Vol.1 No.3 Autumn 1989

Lange, C. (2008) Men and women writing women: The female perspective and

feminism in U.S. novels and African novels in French by male and female Authors.          UW-L Journal of Undergraduate Research XI

Moi, T. (2009) What can literature do? Simone de Beauvoir as a literary theorist. Modern           Language Association of America

Moi, T. (2001) What is a woman? And other essays. Oxford University Press.

 

 

 

FigShare ER Model

Entities

The database shall be defined by five distinct entities. Each entity represents the different types of users that are expected to have access to the system.

User Class Name Critical

(Y/N)

Estimated Number of Users How They Use The System
1.     Administrator (Admin) Y 5 Administration is in charge of the management of crucial data, including and not limited to user all user information and publications.
2.     Publisher Y 110 A publisher is a registered member of the database and uses the database to upload and share publications with other members.
3.     Researcher Y 450 A researcher is a registered member who will use the system to access the database for completed projects posted by publishers and available  projects posted by institutions
4.     Institution N 1500 An institution is an entity other than an individual. Institutions use the system to store large amounts of data. They can also push any of their research to any of the available internal repositories.
5.     Visitor N 300 A visitor is a non-registered member with limited user capability. They can only use the database to conduct and information search.

 

 

 

Relationships

Admin – All Other Users

Administration will have the permissions to view information pertaining to all users. This will include the user’s bio data (user name, picture, biography and social media links) and a list of their uploaded, claimed and completed articles. Admin will also have the ability to edit any of the user’s data. This will include their bio data and/or their user account.

Researchers – Institutions

Researchers will have the ability to view all research statistics pertaining to a given institution. This will be a detail of all their completed articles, available articles and projects, projects in progress and completed projects.

Researchers – Publishers

Researchers will have the ability to view all research statistics pertaining to a given publisher. This will be a detail of all their completed articles, available articles and projects, projects in progress and completed projects.

Institutions – Researchers

Institutions will have the ability to view all research statistics pertaining to any researcher. This will be a detail of uploaded articles, claimed articles and projects in progress. They will further have the ability to select a given researcher to undertake a given project.

Institutions – Publishers

Institutions will have the ability to view all research statistics pertaining to any publisher. This will be a detail of uploaded articles, claimed articles and projects in progress. They will further have the ability to select a given publisher to undertake a given project.

Publishers – Researchers

Publishers will have the ability to view all research statistics pertaining to any given researcher. This will be a detail of uploaded articles, claimed articles and projects in progress.

Publishers – Institutions

Publishers will have the ability to view all research statistics pertaining to a given institution. This will be a detail of all their completed articles, available articles and projects, projects in progress and completed projects.

 

Attributes

All objects within the database will be defined by a specific set of attributes aimed to ensure efficiency in the use of the database.

Each user will be defined by the following attributes

                                             User
User Name This is a unique name that will identify each user
Picture A recent digital photograph of the user
Biography A short description of their educational and professional history
Social Media Links A list of all links to social media platforms employed by the user
Research Statistics An overview of all information pertaining to research conducted by the user

 

Research Statistics
Views & Shares A list of all articles a user has viewed and/or shared with other users
Categories Published All categories within which the user has had their articles published
Related Authors All authors with which the user has worked with
Tags Used All key words that have been used to tag their articles
Uploads All their article uploads in the past and present

 

Preferences
Make Public The option to make the article available to all people accessing the database
Make Private The option to limit access to the article to specific users
Article Type The option to select the general classification of the article
Article Title The option to define the article’s title
Article Category The option to select the general grouping of the article
Article Tags The option to define the key words used to search  the article
Article Description A short description of the articles contents
Add Links The option to add links to other forms of media related to the article

 

 

 

Dent Questions

1

A starting point to defining culture is taking a closer look into Dent’s influential study of how accounting became implicated with organizational change at Euro Rail, a public railway company with roots in the Victorian era. The purpose of the study was aimed at examining how accounting is mobilized for reconstructing an organization’s culture; it helped to understand how culture shapes action. In his study, Dent goes on to define what culture is; he describes the culture as an elusive concept. (Dent, 1991) In Dent’s study, a cultural change occurred in the course of a complete organizational reorientation as the company was privatized, and the old service-focused operational management culture gave way to a more commercial executive ethos; here, a management system replaced the old-fashioned system. Top management’s reliance on the new accounting controls subsequently led to the language, decisions, and actions that reshaped other organizational participants’ views of problems, priorities, and possibilities for further action. According to Dent, culture is defined to be, “the broad constellation of interpretive structures through which actions and events are rendered meaningful in a community.”(Dent, 1991) The concept of culture relies on information taken from anthropology, and ethnography, which has come from the literature based on the ideational of organizations.

Organizational culture includes an organization’s anticipations, shared experiences, attitudes, and shared values that make up the organization. It is expressed in its self-perception, within the organization, the outside view interactions, and future goals of the organization. “It is based on shared attitudes, beliefs, customs, and written and unwritten rules that have been developed over time and are considered valid.” (Business Dictionary, n.d) Organizational culture is also referred to as corporate culture; it is viewed in the different ways that the organization conducts its organization, how well the employees are treated, how well the customers are served, and the impact on the community. Organization culture draws emphasis to the level to which employees are allowed in the decision-making process. The level that employees can develop new ideas, and express themselves. The organizations’ power and information flow through its hierarchy and it show how committed employees are towards collective goals. “The appreciation of organizations as cultures brings the interpretive, experiential aspects of their activities to the foreground of analysis, emphasizing their expressive qualities.”(Dent, 1991)

In defining culture it entails of ambiguous and unambiguous concepts, or patterns, from and for behavior learned and spread by symbols. Culture establishes the idiosyncratic feats of individuals, including their personifications in objects, the vital part of culture involves the traditional ideas and their close values. The systems in culture are considered the byproducts of actions, and on the other had as acclimatizing influences upon supplementary action. Within organizations culture is meant to be shared or collective assumptions or behaviors that are attached to people’s actions in certain situations. In Dent’s study, his views of culture are taken from previous literature that emphasizes that culture is a public or identical system that draws significance to the shared behavior that dictates their actions.  As Dent implies, “Culture is public, the product of minds between minds. Culturally significant events give public expression to the ideational system.”(Dent, 1991) Pertaining to the Euro rail, within an organization, everything is expressive, in a culmination of everyone’s collective thought, their values devolve them with “symbolic qualities of meaning.”

Dent continues that culture within organizations also has subcultures that exist among groups or teams made up of members from different backgrounds, social classes, and norms. Distinct subcultures often gain prominence. Meaning systems differ within an organization and between occupational groups as Dent admits. “Cultures within organizations are not independent of their social context. They are interpreted by a wider system of thought, interacting with other organizations and social institutions, both importing and exporting values, beliefs, and knowledge.”(Dent, 1991) The concept of accounting is the likely bottom line in all the subcultures within the organization. Dent shares that cultures within the organization are, however, poorly understood. Dent considers culture as a political process; the many subcultures pitted against each other in order to gain the up hand and dominance over the other. The purpose of Dent’s study is to examine the culture change within organizations in define what culture is by using Euro Rail as an allegory in the conceptualization of the change as the separation of organizational action from one culture, and it is rejoining to another culture.

2

In Dent’s study, the research method that he used in order to obtain his findings is “closer engagement in the research setting and interpretive methodology.”(Dent, 1991) His method of qualitative research consists of data collection of descriptions and personal accounts that are given by participants, personal observations, interactions, and activities at the research site. Information and data were recorded and processed over a lengthy period of time. As he recounted, “arm’s length analysis is clearly inappropriate for cultural analysis of the kind described here.”(Dent, 1991) Unlike other studies, no hypothesis is needed. However, the study is conjectured through the data in an inductive manner. In developing the data, Dent seeks to develop a sense of empathy in understanding the participants’ realism. The interpretations gathered must be continually constructed in the manner that Dent was satisfied with until they are grounded in context and consistent with the order of interactions and said events. The underlying goal of the study is to get the prime perspective, his inner self, and ultimately his perspective of the world.

The specific study that Dent implemented was done over a period of two years, with follow up visits at stages of one, and two years later. Within research for the study of Dent, had an ongoing method of data collection, analysis, and interaction. He offered no personal opinion except in the process of encouraging interviewees. Dent was able to through to gain information, and free range interviews, from the organization through various channels of contacts.

Dent’s collected data from staff in several ways. The first being of a series of approximately 30 managers within the head offices, and senior level management that he interviewed more than once. The interviews with different staff within the finance and engineering departments would typically last from 60 to 90 minutes, were recorded and transcribed over the two year research period. In his second data collection method, he observed different debates in various internal meetings, where he noted on specific dialogue when necessary. The third method, data were collected through casual encounters and conversations. As Dent shares, the study was immersed in tons of transcripts and notes that were incoherent first to understand, after realizing a pattern after exploring different ways in analyzing work, the research begins to produce viable results.

“Ultimately, the analysis hinged on three dimensions: role (function), and level of hierarchy of the subject than time.”(Dent, 1991) the data was first categorized by the context and value of the research. The data collected from the transcripts, interviews, and conversations were used. The data was broken down into similar clusters as many that worked on the same levels had similar perspectives that differed in the level of hierarchy established. The third dimension was set to represent the elapse in time. The third dimension studies the content of data that is moved the forces of time that have revealed that the opinions, views, and interpretations of each group were evolving in a way that was systematic. All three dimensions were used in forming the organization culture and the data in the emergence of the different cultures. In his method of data collection, he was able to get a clear perspective from participants without interfering in the process. Cultural research differs from regular research methods, as the high volume of opinions, observations, interviews from participants’ produces an overwhelming amount of data that must be analyzed. “Cultural research seeks to find out is the way in which societies or groups see the world and their part in that world and, perhaps most pertinently, how such groups express their place in that world.”(Sage Research, 2006)

In Dent’s cultural study, he relies on an empirical setting that followed a sociological approach that revolves around the observation of the people within the culture. All the factors that affect society, such as the socioeconomic class or situations, the many religions within the culture, different family structures, various traditions, family backgrounds, and the different educational levels are factored into the research to define what the culture signifies. It predicts how the people of the organizational culture will respond to certain situations. This method proved to be of significance in drawing personal perspectives in drawing realism to finding conclusions to the theory presented. In his study, he seeks to develop an empathy with the data progressively. In understanding how the thought processes of the participants accumulated, and their view of the realities in which they work in.

3

Within his study Dent outlines the dynamics of change where Euro Rail shifted from the “railway” to a “business culture.” In Dent’s study, he uses the organization of the Euro Rail, a large company consisting of 160,000 employees, going from the private sector to the public-sector railway ownership. The history of the Euro Rail entails how they raised capital to fund their projects, and the world famous engineered who pioneered the emergence of the industrial technology. At the time, the companies were considered a monopoly that was the main mode of transportation within the country. The companies previously had maintained good relationships with the governments, “paid consistent dividends and their shares were blue-chip stocks.”(Dent, 1991) The importance of these companies is that they embraced a public service attitude that provided, “a transport infrastructure much needed for the pursuit of trade and manufacturing, and for social mobility. Euro rail’s cultural reorientation to the change in the dominant institutional logic of the company’s environment that is a shift from the old railway service logic to a commercial one. Management was conservative and followed a clear chain of command, and took pride in their professional management of the railway system. Soon the railway companies became nationalized and consolidated the structure into a representation or the radial route into the major cities. However, times were changing, and the railway system was seen as old-fashioned. The government was laying sanctions as the pressures for profitability were arduous.

After the organization of the Executive Committee, they created new management positions that appointed Business Managers (outside the hierarchy of the mainline management) that broke down railway operations into market sectors. The skills of the Business Managers brought along knowledge in marketing, long-term planning, ‘bottom line’ management. Each skill that the Business Managers had had an image of modernism, allowing the railway to throw off the image of being “old-fashioned. They obtained roles of developing strategies to enhance the performance of each business sector. The appointment of the Business Managers within Euro Rail introduced a new business culture.

Business Managers had an influence on the General Managers and shifted the ideal of the organization the business culture that the Business Managers endorsed. The Business Managers brought a different perspective of reality. The Business Managers had no real authority or control over the railway operations, however, had ample persuasion in shifting the culture of seeing the railway as a business whose purpose is to make a profit. They reported to the Chief Executive and joined as members of the Executive Committee. As the organization changed into the Business culture, many within the organization left, and the policies changed from the old way of doing business into new kinds of policies and decisions molded from the new business culture. “The railway culture has been substantially displaced by the business perspective, the belief that railways should be instrumental in making a profit and managed to that end.”(Dent, 1991)

The purpose of implementing the Business Manager is to turn the railway of old ways into a business that makes a profit. The role of accounting was as Dent put in the operations, that the importance of the operations were the trains, staff, and the infrastructure was the costs. At the time, no accounting system was in place that measured the profit and profit loss for the organization. The appointment of the Business Managers changes the system of unallocated costs to an allocation of common costs. Business Managers were responsible for all the costs and the consequences of incurring costs. Upon the appointment of the Business Managers individuals within the accounting department were also appointed to develop loss and profit measures for each business sector. The accountant was involved in all dealings with the Business Managers and business executives that discussed the different ways in apportioning costs, and cost exhaustion. The method of profit and loss for each business sector was, “founded on principles reflecting the primacy of use of resources, and that the development of computer systems to operationalize the principle in full took some while.”(Dent, 1991) Each measure that was introduced was fundamental in the emergence of the new “business culture.” The accounting measures provided a clear construct of operational and physical means for an economic view.

The Business Managers brought a new counter business culture than the previously held railway culture that was in place. The Business Managers were able to provide a dialogue in the railway method of engineering and operations into a business language of profits and markets. Changes were not only seen within the organizational culture but also the accounting system. Changes within the systems that include the budgeting, capital investment, and planning to interpenetrate the occurrence and amplification of the business culture. Accounting within the old system or railway culture, it was revolved around ensuring that revenues were accounted for, suppliers and vendors paid, and to contain waste. However, it was limited in its meaning.

Within the business culture that involved around the “bottom line,” and accounting involved looking to product markets, and revenues of the products. Accounting became increasingly influential in searching for opportunities in profits and eliminating business sectors that were not making the business profit in order to survive in the business with increasing competition from other modes of transportation. “This shift in knowledge which accounting helps to construct, the shift from looking to the state for subsistence to looking to markets, is fundamental, and it interpenetrates the operation and management of ER’s one technology with pervasive effects.”(Dent, 1991)

4

Accounting within both cultures plays a significant role in constructing the knowledge embodied in the particular assumptions about, the organization, authority, time, rationality, and so on. Accounting introduces a framework of a new organization, patterns, and influences that help to dictate the current actions of the organization into a profitable business. Within accounting are two issues that convey the relationship between forms of organizational knowledge and accounting, and what the role of accounting in procedures of the organizational collation. The particular knowledge that was obtained shifting to the new business culture was obtained over a period in with the initial accounts and joining of actions had to be created. Dent implies the business culture unfolded in episodes. “Bursts of exhausting creativity, each building on what had previously been accomplished, and punctuated by a concluding event; followed by a pause or consolidation, recovery, and imagination before the next.”(Dent, 1991) These episodes continued to replay in the railway culture was redefined.

Within the culture of organization events and activities unfold at different periods of time, each uncoupling and recoupling at separate times to share different knowledge and rationales of the culture. Accounting can enter into organizational settings to constitute cultural knowledge in particular ways by creating particular rationalities for organizational action, and in turn, it shows how it can lead to new patterns of organizational or author influence, a new concept so time and legitimate action. The cultural system involves the knowledge about the environments, the different strategies for excavating the subsistence from the culture, and other various things. This shift in knowledge is seen with the incorporation of accounting within the new business culture that turns the focus into markets, and operations and management of the new counter-culture within Euro Rail. In the organization, it reverted from just the main operations of trains but also the new operational management structure of just production, and channels of marketing. The main focus has shifted towards markets. The new knowledge is left to the Business Managers that have supposed expertise in the channels of marketing, and getting resources to make the organization more profitable. The appropriate form of action within the business culture redefined the changing knowledge.

In the old system or knowledge trains and engineers that ran them had to be taken care of in order to maintain a profit. Activities that were costing them an organization more than helping them included, training employees to smile at customers. In the new system or new knowledge, these activities were eliminated as they did not have any benefit towards the helping into markets. The bottom line activities of the Business Managers were seen as more desirable as they added more value than what they would cost the organization. The bottom line engineering specification, mentioned earlier, means that the Business Managers were designing for the market. The added comfort, speed, reliability, and customer service provided the returns that far outweighed the costs.

Their actions within their business culture also differed in the old knowledge system and the new knowledge system. In the old knowledge, the time that Euro Rail had seemed endless. The railways were built to last as the country would always need travel methods. In the new knowledge, the measure of time is shorter as much emphasis is placed on the government pressure to deliver amongst the competition and the entrance into the markets. “Accounting coming into the organization to construct a new theory of subsistence, which in turn implies particular modes of organizing, patterns of influence and authority, criteria for action, and a new concept of time.”(Dent, 1991) The belief in markets today for organizational culture is entrenched in the political cultures of the government. Accounting systems are implementing in unique ways that serve the better purpose of reorganizing the management structure by obtaining new knowledge. Dent implies that the purpose of the study was to explain a mode of hypothesizing relations between accounting and culture.

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Dent, Jeremy. Accounting and Organizational Culture’s: A Field Study of the Emergence of New Organizational Reality. (1991) Accounting, Organizations and Society. Vol.16

 

Cultural Research: SAGE Research Methods. (2006). Retrieved from http://srmo.sagepub.com/view/the-sage-dictionary-of-social-research-methods/n40

 

Culture definition – Texas A&M University. (2001). Retrieved from http://www.tamu.edu/faculty/choudhury/culture.html

 

What is organizational culture? (N.d). Business Dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/organizational-culture.html

 

 

Culture Shock Assignment

The concept of a “culture shock” is a very real thing, as well as an extremely important component to social growth within certain individuals removed from their original birthplace, or culture they are used to. It is not a surprising reaction–both modern psychology and history both indicate that human beings do not adapt well to unfamiliar social situations. This rings true for everyone, but children most prolifically, as they are the most impressionable of all. This especially proved to be true with my interviewee–though her strong will has allowed her to persevere over the horrors involved in her individual culture shock.

Schmidt clearly outlines the model for a general case of culture shock in a four, and occasionally five-step process. Keeping in mind the principles of the honeymoon, horror, humor, and home stages while preparing interview materials–which seems at face value as an extremely logical and pragmatic progression–I figured I would use communication and social norms to judge my ethical responsibility when approaching the interview as a whole (Schmidt, 2007). As it turns out, these models are not necessarily universal.

This naturally involved evaluating the interviewee; first deciding what stage I could most attribute her so as not to cover any subjects she was not comfortable speaking about–especially due to her particular situation. To my surprise, she was very open about the culture shock she had experienced individually, and seemed to be inside the “home stage”–where the individual is comfortable with both their past as well as their present, and has come to terms with–or “recovered” from their culture shock (Schmidt, 2007). What I found while conducting the interview itself was something different altogether from my expectations–which again draws the conclusion that her individual situation created an individual result.

A background on my interviewee is absolutely essential to understanding the profound culture shock she encountered throughout her young life. The only way to describe what this strong woman has endured is a multi-pronged culture shock–being forcibly removed from her home due to bloody Civil War’s as a refugee–not just once, but twice–and in her most impressionable years as a child. My interviewee was living in Liberia during the Civil War taking place in the late 1990’s primarily. When rebel forces threatened her homeland near Monrovia, she fled with her family–along with many other Liberian refugees–across the border into the country of Sierra Leone.

The Civil War followed her across the border–in the early 2000’s Sierra Leone exploded with violence worse than what was even seen in Liberia. The warring factions, neither better than the other, tore the country apart–enlisting child soldiers and funding campaigns with slavery and the illegal diamond trade. Her family was again forced to relocate after just three years in Sierra Leone–this time far away from West Africa, closer to Liverpool. This was very temporary before my interviewee, and her family found their final destination in London.

Operating under the auspices that she was indeed in the “home stage” of culture shock, I asked a question I believed would elicit an answer that would monopolize much of our interview. When posed with the seemingly simple question of what was the hardest thing about moving, or the most difficult relocation from her situation, I received an answer I certainly did not expect. “Definitely moving from Liverpool to London was the most difficult for me…”, she responded. This was naturally shocking considering the forced relocations she had to deal with in her young life. Upon a little more conversation, she went on to state that her chaotic childhood left her without any knowledge of what it was like without it. In Liverpool she knew her situation was temporary as well–it was not until coming to the realization that she was indeed settled in a safe environment that a true shock of any kind set in.

“Balloons,” she went on to say, “they just sounded differently. It was not for a while after I moved to London that I stopped ducking when the popped. Cars too–when they make that loud echoing popping sound…” before briefly trailing off.  I decided not to press that issue too much more–I knew I was dealing with sensitive material, and ethically I could not continue to prod further. This was when I realized that I had perhaps misjudged my interviewee a bit, and quickly changed direction.

I chose a simple question and asked what the word “culture shock” meant to her. She responded quite eagerly about the differences between West Africa and the UK–specifically referring to her “smartphone”, which she stated may have been impossible to have because she is female, overlooking the cost issue. There was clearly an underlying issue of feminism when she was speaking in this regard, so I allowed her to continue. She explained to me the demographics of where she came from–between the influence of tribal beliefs, the male-dominated rebels, and how she would never have reached the goals she has indeed reached in her life as a female in either Liberia or Sierra Leone. Knowing she was a college student now, I inquired about the education where she came from. She responded somewhat dejectedly that though a vague possibility for a man, it would have been unheard of for a female.

I asked how education in London had impacted her life, and she became ecstatic. “Where do I start?” was her first response. The movement from West Africa to London, she explained, opened up doors she had never imagined possible. Specifically citing her multicultural studies, she has become fascinated with other cultures–as if her own was not diverse enough. Enjoying history, she explained that she was not privy to any of the materials in her books at home. “At first, I felt out of place of course. I felt behind–dumb even. I just decided to take advantage of my situation and learn as much as I could…”.

Economically, she outlined her situation very clearly–although her Father works very hard, there was no way she would have the quality of life she has in London had she not defected from West Africa. She offered the information that whether it was Liberia or Sierra Leone was beside the point, which I found interesting as a concept. She said that moving to Sierra Leone was nothing–she was moving with family, friends, and many others like her. Her life was no different in Sierra Leone. London, however, initially struck her with the fear of the unfamiliar–attempting to harness the three parts of the triangle model was overwhelming; she claimed trouble balancing new cultural norms with her own feelings and experiences. This, she claimed, came with nothing but time–though claiming she now thought most of these issues were nowhere beside her own head citing her new brilliant life.

Culture Shock Interview

Question: So, where are you originally from?

Answer: Originally I was born near Monrovia in Liberia, and I lived there with my family for a few of my earlier years. Unfortunately, this was not the safest environment–well, it became very unsafe very quickly. Even as a child I remember my Father leaving a machete by the front door just in case.

Question: In case…can you elaborate at all?

Answer: Yes, just in case. Neither the government or the rebels had a plan–or any sort of conscious either. People disappeared–they were just killed senselessly or else forced to fight. My parents decided to move to Sierra Leone across the border along with many others at the time. Liberia brought its problems to Sierra Leone, and the war followed us. At that time, there was only survival–we settled in Freetown temporarily. Moving through Guinea, my family ended up in the UK–living closer to Liverpool.

Question: That must have been an incredible difference in lifestyle. Was it a difficult adjustment?

Answer: You know, to Liverpool, not so much. We stayed inside a lot–we also knew it was temporary. Definitely moving from Liverpool to London was the most difficult for me though.

Question: Why?

Answer: Hmmm…Balloons… they just sounded differently. It was not for a while after I moved to London that I stopped ducking when they popped. Cars too–when they make that loud echoing popping sound…

Question: What has education in London done for you?

Answer: Where can I start? The doors that opened up for me were unthinkable for someone like me. I was naturally thrilled, but it also illustrated how different I really was and this was scary.

Question: How did this affect you?

Answer: It pushed me harder! I love learning about other cultures, so I decided to learn as much about Britain’s as I could. I observed social situations–and there you go. I mean at first, I felt out of place of course. I felt behind–dumb even. I just decided to take advantage of my situation and learn as much as I could to compensate at the bit I suppose.

Question: Lastly, what does culture shock mean to you?

Answer: See my phone? First of all, for a female to even own a phone where I come from is unheard of. Second of all, we could never have afforded even one phone! I go to school now–coming here; I felt like I was so behind because girls do not go to the school where I come from. Men dominate everything–and of course, this isn’t every case–but from tribal leaders to the government, and especially the rebels can be cruel to women. This is what I am saying–Liberia, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe–anywhere in West Africa–it makes no difference. I was alarmed by my freedoms when I moved to London more than anything, and it took awhile to get used to it.

 

 

 

Works Cited

“Cultural Shock.” Personal interview. 15 Oct. 2013.

Schmidt, Patrick L. . In Search of Intercultural Understanding. Montreal: Meridian             World, n.d. Print.

Can doctors say ‘enough’?

Introduction

The field of medicine and medical practices is a crucial one for it is involved with matters that directly affect life, i.e., the well being of human beings. The practitioners in the field however sometimes find themselves in a position in which they have to do that which may be perceived unconventional by the majority of the people who do not understand the various aspects of the outcomes involved. In order to minimize the controversies associated by the actions taken by the practitioners in the field, the various bodies governing their activities have come up with clearly stated principles and policies that should be embraced in such situations. However, that notwithstanding, controversies still exist as those handled below (Curtis, 2010, 37).

This case indeed represents one of the most controversial situations a medical practitioner might find himself or herself in.  The writer has in many aspects argued from the professional logic in the medicine field citing the various norms and principles as outlined in the various laid down structures of the field.  The writer introduces the article from a neutral perspective as he endeavors to let the reader see both sides of the matter and goes further to create an argument that inspires one to start thinking critically about the case. The writer’s line of thinking is one in which there is the consideration of what is the right thing to be done and does not attempt to answer the question of whether or not what actually happened was justified. Instead, the writer leaves that ruling at the readers’ discretion (Gedge, 2007, 217).

The writer presents the core principles of the medical profession by which most crucial decisions should be based. He clearly describes the situations in which the core principles of the medical have to be applied, but he also indicates the situations in which they are limited or can be applied in a different manner. The writer, for example, outlines how the balance between the two core principles, beneficence and non-maleficence leads to the creation of controversial situations in medical practice. These situations generate different interpretations especially in cases in which two different parties involved in the case take the two different principles as a basis for argument. The general philosophy in the field is for the best to be delivered by the medical practitioners and the expectations of the patient to be met accordingly. However, when an act of helping is interpreted as an act of destroying by the other party, it becomes hard to make a decision that lacks controversy. The writer has exhausted all the potential viewpoints that would be taken by the involved parties, and the reader is challenged to be the ultimate decision-maker in the case after having analyzed the stated evidence from both professional and logical perspectives (Pattison, 2004, 137).

Conclusion

The case together with the associated worldwide controversy is a clear indication that the principles governing the medical field are not yet substantial to ensure satisfaction of parties involved. This therefore calls for a clear restatement of the principles to cover such situations. In case of difficulty in implementing such, then it will be more advantageous for the caretakers of the patients to be contacted before such a stage is reached so as consensus is reached on what action should be taken (Gleeson, 2007, 61).

 

 

Works Cited

Curtis, Vincent. “Ethics and end-of-life care for adults in the intensive care unit.” Lancet.; 2010. Print.

Gedge, Giacomini. “Withholding and withdrawing life support in critical care settings: ethical issues concerning consent.” J Med Ethics. 33.4:215-218. 2007. Print.

Gleeson, Dickson. “Is it time for advance healthcare directives?” Irish Council on Bioethics. 13.2. pp. 23-67. 2007. Print.

Pattison, Nelson. Integration of critical care and palliative care at end of life. J Nurs. pp. 132-139. 2004. Print.

 

 

5 DIMENSIONS

Identity

The message of identity is also often sent through purchasing decisions: decorations can be rainbow colored, a signal for gay pride. These are ways of publicly forming a gay identity which is assertive social behavior for SSC (Wardlow 1996: 114). The defining feature of globalization is the spread of consumer culture (Shove & Warde 1998: 2). The day to day activities of SSC is based on the aspirations of wanting a better life (Gidden 1984: 24). SSC social behaviors are based on established patterns of gay and lesbian consumption (Reckwitz 2002: 244).

Novelty

Consumption for the SSC is a new social movement (Wardlow 1996: 20, 80). The sociology of consumption of the SSC can be seen as a coping mechanism for having been deprived of the ability to consume prior to SSC marriage (Shove & Ward 1998: 2). People will want to attend them and take part in same sex wedding because they’re new and novel. The act of same sex marriage is an adaptive emotional and social mechanism. Invention comes out of applying coping mechanism for consumption in SSC (Franke & Shah 2003: 157).

Matching

The SSC seek to asset their identity through consuming (Wardlow 1996: 93).Seek a single identity or image, but several for different moods, and to the extent that all are equally stylish someone might acquire several matching sets of everything. The theme the colours everything must match consistent. Table cloths to match bridesmaid dresses. SSC make their choices based on the pursuit of happiness (Shove 2001: 2). SSC attitudes and behavior toward consumption are based on the happy SSC couples which are presented through media and real life interactions (Giddins 1984: 225)

 

Specialisation in daily life

SSC prefer vendors who cater to their tastes (Wardlow 1996: 32). Many partners in SSC had not been given the opportunity to pursue their dreams. As a result, on the become partners in SSC they want to pursue every dream (Shove & Ward 1998: 2). Suits what to wear the creation of same sex weddings brings about new diverse range of social situations that different attire will be created. Methods of conceptualizing life changes demonstrate previous comprehension of the correlation between structure and agency. SSC want to live for the moment and consume as well as they can in order to compensate for the lack of consumption experienced prior to becoming partners (Shove & Warde 1998: 3; Shove 2001: 2).

 

Reference List

Giddens A 1984, The Constitution of Society Outline of the Theory of Standardization. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Franke, N & Shah, DS 2003, ‘How communities support innovative activities: an exploration of assistance and sharing among end users. Research Policy, vol. 32, pp. 157- 178.
Reckwitz, A 2002, ‘Toward a theory of Social practices: A development in cultural theories.’ European Journal of Social Theory, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 243- 263.
Shove, E 2001, The dynamics of European Science and Technology Policies. Alderstad- Ashgate.
Shove, E & Warde, A 1998, ‘Inconspicuous consumption: the sociology of consumption and the environment.’ Department of Sociology, Lancaster University.
Taylor, C 1971,’Interpreation of the Sciences of man.’ Review of Metaphysics, vol. 25, p. 3- 51.
Wardlow, D 1996, Gays, Lesbians Consumer Behavior: Theory, Practice and Research Issues. Amityville, NY: Baywood Publishing.
Wittgenstein, L 1996, On Certainty. John Wiley & Sons.

“The Possession of Knowledge Carries an Ethical Responsibility”

Introduction

Within the field of theories of knowledge, an equally wide range of concerns exists, inherently dependent on those theories themselves.  The discussion here is then as potentially broad as all of the human experience, a fact compounded by the inevitable dilemma that the basic subject is so multifaceted.  For example, in examining the issue of whether knowledge carries an ethical responsibility, knowledge itself must be approached as the immeasurably vast expanse it is.  Knowledge comes in innumerable forms, and this alone may create dilemmas of degree, regarding what ethical responsibilities are attached to it.  In the following, the ways in which this statement may be probed will be offered, but there is a resolution that no amount of investigation can offer.  Namely, the ethical responsibility when knowledge is present is very real, but it entirely depends upon the circumstances of the situation, as ethics themselves are rarely absolute. More exactly, if there is a definitive attachment of ethics to knowledge, it can only be expressed as the ethical responsibility to weigh the knowledge as carefully as possible, because it provides the foundation for whatever ethics are to be considered.

Discussion

If any single factor may be identified as absolutely attaching ethical responsibility to knowledge, it is one ironically removed what any form that responsibility may take.  Namely, it is in being certain of the knowledge in question.  For any idea or information to be so designated, it must be certain and true, at least as far as the individual can know.   This is no small matter.  Put another way; ethical responsibility takes on a completely different meaning if the “knowledge” is in any way questionable.  For example, to have good reason to believe that a structural flaw may endanger people at an event in a stadium presents one kind of ethical obligation and going to more than a single concern.  The belief expressed, if not valid knowledge of the fact, could have serious and damaging consequences for a range of individuals, from the stadium’s owner to the civic authorities or emergency personnel unnecessarily called into action.  If the flaw is ascertained as fact, however, the ethical course is relatively clear, and this example illustrates a case wherein the responsibility and the knowledge are definitely linked.

Other cases, however, are far less easy to identify because, again, knowledge may exist in a wide variety of forms, even when it is certain as knowledge.  The most obvious instance here would be a case wherein the facts known may or may not impact on people dangerously.  A person may know for a fact, for instance, that a certain ingredient in a food product does not provide the health benefits its manufacturers claim it does.  At the same time, the person also knows that no harm is done by the ingredient; that many people likely feel better because they believe in its efficacy; and that letting this information out would cost hundreds of individuals their jobs.  Complicating the matter further is the identity of the knowledge-holder.  More exactly, it is understood that businesses and corporations must operate with an active sense of ethical responsibility.  This has developed into the modern science of corporate social responsibility, although the concept is as old as commerce itself (Schwartz  20).  Organizations must adhere to ethics in regard to knowledge of what they do to comply with social standards and to enhance their status in the eyes of the society, as well as to obey the law.  The corporation and the individual, moreover, face the same dilemma in regard to imparting knowledge, which is that the actual import or value of the knowledge must be assessed as clearly as possible.  What separates them is the degree of responsibility; as the organization is the larger entity and likely to be more impactful, so too is it more ethically obligated to weigh the potential consequences of imparting knowledge.  Nonetheless, and in both cases, there remains the difficulty of understanding the value of knowledge, and often this is a determination that may be only estimated.

It seems, in fact, that the arena of the subject is limitless, because the factors going to each element of it may so widely vary.  Returning to the example of the food ingredient, it appears that the business bears, again, the greater ethical responsibility to at least employ the knowledge to end the false assumptions.  This is largely prompted by the simple fact that, as the business profits from the product, it is the more ethically indebted to maintain integrity regarding it and to act upon certain knowledge.  The issue is complicated. However, one of the dilemmas cited as affecting the individual response; namely, jobs.  If no harm is done and many are earning livelihoods because a product is selling based on false information, determining the greater good is not necessarily easy.  More exactly, the ethics in this case of using or not using knowledge are confronting a pragmatic reality and an ethical abstract, in a sense.  Sharing the knowledge about the product serves the ethical good of honesty to the society, but it also creates the practical damage of adversely affecting lives.  Similarly, as the individual with the knowledge must consider this, so too are they driven to question just how far the ethical responsibilities of a single person go, particularly when no danger is created by remaining silent.  This is, of course, also only one example of how the many forms of knowledge may take present complicating factors in determining the ethical course.

There is also the matter, as with knowledge, of comprehending the dimensions of what exactly is meant by “ethical responsibility.”  On one level, most individuals behave in ways reflecting basic responsibilities, in that they “ethically” make themselves available through the critical process of simply attending to an issue or thing.  Ethical responsibility occurs when one person listens to another in an ordinary conversation because this basic example illustrates the awareness of the other that is essential to ethics itself.  At the same time, there are larger issues of larger responsibilities, and knowledge here, as with the stadium example, takes on a consequently more important role.  Ethical responsibility translates to a recognition of the other in personal relationships, but it incorporates themes like justice and equality when a wider public is acknowledged.  This is where, in fact, a theory of knowledge that is inherently social comes into play, and the dimensions are many (Gibbs  133).  It seems reasonable that, to many, acting on knowledge ethically is more easily achieved when the parties involved are single individuals, if only because we tend to assume that this scenario creates a “balance of power.”  The arena is too small and too balanced to admit to serious breaches of ethics.  It is when the polarity is strong, as in the individual’s choosing to reveal information that would affect a corporation and the society, that the dimensions change.

This then opens the door to ethical relativism, in that whatever belief system is being debated in the individual mind reflects ideas instilled from the surrounding culture (Kuhse, Singer  2).  This element must affect any decision or assessments made here, because knowledge, even at its most questionable, is still a commodity to be applied or withheld, and it is difficult to comprehend then just what ethics are involved.  Cultural relativism is inherently problematic, as degrees of ethical judgments vary in different cultures, but it typically holds to the concept that certain ideas are ethically sound for most people, most of the time (Pollock  43).  Examples of just how problematic this renders the issue of ethics related to knowledge are rife in the field of criminal justice.  This area, moreover, serves to illustrate the complexity of the subject by virtue of the fact that the justice system is as near to a set standard of ethics that any society possesses.  This is the agreed-upon framework in which knowledge translates to ethical responsibility, and because the courts themselves are in place to make these determinations.  The “knowledge” is presented at trial or through the authorities, and the ethical effects largely decide the action to be taken.  Even here, however, relativism creates challenges in attaching value to the knowledge because it is in the nature of any culture for these values to shift over time.  Ethics evolve, ideas of what the knowledge actually means changes, and this translates to a change in the knowledge’s essence.  An example of this is how, in previous eras, the concept of date rape was largely unconsidered by the courts as a crime or gross violation of ethics.  The knowledge was there that a woman was compelled to engage in sex against her will, but this was eclipsed by the further  “knowledge” that such an act was not inherently criminal.  As the society evolved, the ethical incorrectness of such a view was identified, so the initial knowledge took on greater meaning as the latter was dispelled.  Equally importantly, it then became commonly understood that knowledge, or awareness, of such an act, required the communicating of it to the proper authorities.  Here, then, relativism adds additional complications to the already highly complex task of assessing whether possession of knowledge translates to ethical responsibility, as the natures of the components themselves undergo shifts in essential meaning.

Works Cited

Gibbs, R.  Why Ethics?: Signs of Responsibilities.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.    Print.

Kuhse, H., & Singer, P.   Bioethics: An Anthology.  Hoboken: Blackwell Publishing, 2006.  Print.

Pollock, J. M.   Ethical Dilemmas and Decisions in Criminal Justice. Belmont: Cengage             Learning, 2011.  Print.

Schwartz, M. R.  Corporate Social Responsibility: An Ethical Approach.  Buffalo: Broadview      Press, 2011.  Print.

 

 

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